Zestaw szkoleniowy Energia odnawialna – Jednostanowiskowy stół szkoleniowy z ochrony katodowej – DL MK2
SINGLE STATION CATHODIC PROTECTION TRAINING BENCH
Cathodic protection systems are most commonly used to protect steel, water or fuel pipelines and storage tanks, steel pier piles, ships, offshore oil platforms and onshore oil well casings.
This bench must correspond to a training device for the introduction to the Cathodic Protection discipline.
The specification must limit its view over the functions of the training bench, giving the primary list of experiments with which the student can try by himself to practically deepen into the phenomena of the corrosion control of metals in contact with the electrolyte.
The bench must provide facilities to study the case of isolated systems, as well as the case of systems where different metals are coupled together. Particular attention must be given to the presence or not of several kinds of insulating materials over the surfaces of the samples, in order to demonstrate the different behaviour of the same material when coated or bare.
The bench must provide suitable devices to highlight the concept of the free corrosion potential, measured with easy to use reference electrodes and means suitable to build with a certain accuracy the polarization curves.
Protective techniques must be represented as per sacrificial anodes systems of several type of metals as per impressed current Cathodic Protection systems, with the possibility to see which is the explanation of the use of constant voltage, constant
current and constant potential feeders.
The bench must be provided with measuring facilities characterized by suitable sensitivity and accuracy.
It must be possible to connect a suitable multi?channel interface can connect the bench to a PC in order to record the experiment results and give the trace for further studies.
The following list must refer to the performable experiments and it shall correspond to the manual structure.
The manual must be a document addressed to the teacher in order to prepare the lesson and reports the bibliography and links for further investigations on the matter.
? The use of the voltmeter
The most important instrument in the field of the Cathodic Protection is the Voltmeter; typically, must be the digital type. Because of the great impedance, it must allow the measurement of voltages (the potentials) due to sources with very high internal impedance.
The measurements must follow the introduction to the electrical measurements and to the introduction to the Ohm’s law that regulates the passage of the current into the first as well as into the second species conductors (metals and electrolytes).
? The measurement of the difference of potential of a sample into an electrolyte
This experiment must introduce to the subject of the Cathodic Protection. The target of the discipline must be the modify of the potential (versus the reference cell) of the structure to protect by slowing the natural tendency of the metal to pass in solution.
This experiment must emphasize the electrochemical approach to the corrosion phenomena.
? The reference cell
This experiment must put in relation the practical use of the three most common types of reference cells in the discipline, that are the Cu/ CuSO4 reference cell, the Ag/AgCl reference cell and the Zinc reference cell.
? The Daniel Cell
In the Daniel cell, copper and zinc electrodes must be immersed in a solution of copper (II) sulphate and zinc sulphate respectively. At the anode, zinc is oxidized per the following half reaction: Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e?.
At the cathode, copper must be reduced per the following reaction: Cu2+(aq) + 2e? Cu(s)
In the Daniel cell that, due to its simplicity, is often used for demonstrations, electrons must be “pulled” from the zinc travel through the wire, providing an electrical current that illuminates the bulb. In such a cell, the sulphate ions must play an important role.
Having a negative charge, these anions must build up around the anode to maintain a neutral charge.
Conversely, at the cathode the copper (II) cations accumulate to maintain this neutral charge. These two processes must cause copper solid to accumulate at the cathode and the zinc electrode to "dissolve" into the solution.
? The first and second species conductors
By using a simple circuit it must be possible show the equivalence between the electrolytes and the common conductors as far the passage of the electrical current concerns.
? Introduction to the Cathodic Protection Criteria
By using the electrolytic cell of the bench it must be possible reproduce the application of the NACE criteria that confirm the status of Cathodic Protection of a structure.
? Introduction to the sacrificial anodes in Zn, Mg, and Al
By using the electrolytic cell of the bench it is possible reproduce the application of the
sacrificial anode to a steel structure and see in the same time the comparison in
between two specimen, one in Cathodic Protection regimen, the other in free
? Introduction to the Cathodic Protection Impressed Current System
By using the electrolytic cell of the bench it must be possible reproduce the application of the impressed current to a steel structure and see at the same time the comparison between two specimens, one in Cathodic Protection regimen, obtained by means of sacrificial anodes, the other driven with the impressed current system.
? The consumable impressed current anode (Fe)
By using the electrolytic cell of the bench it must be possible to reproduce the application of the impressed current to a steel structure and see in time the effect of the consumption of the anode due to its passage in solution.
? The inert impressed anode (Ti?Pt and MMO)
Not all the anodic materials pass in solution, two examples must be seen by using the Titanium Platinized anode and the Metal Oxide covered Titanium anode.
? Resistance concept, circuit for the first and second species conductors
By using the electrolytic cell of the bench it must be possible to produce the passage of current into the bath and in this way to demonstrate the validity of the Ohm’s Law in the field of Cathodic Protection.
? Introduction to the specific resistance concept over three different first species conductors (Fe; Cu; Fe?Ni)
To drive the student to the concept of resistivity, an experiment must be executed by using three geometrically identical samples of different materials in order to identify the concept of specific resistance, that is, the resistivity or as inverse the conductivity concept.
? Introduction to the concept of interference due to the presence of external electric fields on buried or submerged structures (Stray Currents)
The experiment must reproduce the effect of an external electric field on a submerged structure with the result of the formation of separated anodic and cathodic areas on the surface of the sample. It is the introduction to the concept of interference due to the presence of an external and interfering electric field on buried or submerged structures (Stray Currents).
? Air presence influence on resistivity (insufflate air effect)
This experiment must explain and demonstrate the change of the resistivity with the increase of the presence of air dissolved into the electrolyte.
? Current density introduction and Tafel Curves construction
The concept of current density must be, like the difference of potential, the main concept in the Cathodic Protection discipline and this experiment allows understanding that with this concept it is possible to predict the amount of current needed to obtain the Cathodic Protection regimen over a known surface structure immersed in the electrolyte.
By using the provided interface it must be possible to record the change of the current values in time, then build the polarization curves in a plot.
? Temperature effect over the Current density (thermostatic cell)
This experiment must explain and demonstrate the change of current density as a function of the temperature and introduces the concept of chemical activity.
? Air presence influence over the Current density (insufflate air effect)
This experiment must explain and demonstrate the change of current density as a function of the increasing of dissolved oxygen.
? Coating and Current density
The use of coated samples must allow demonstrating the effect of the coatings over the submerged or buried structures and must give the magnitude of the effect explaining that the synergy between the Cathodic Protection and the Coating of the surfaces to be protected reduces the current density with all the relevant advantages.
LIST OF MATERIALS
The proposed bench must be supplied ready to be used and provided with the hereinafter listed material:
bench with wheels with electrical console to connect to the mains Vac supply and lockable shelves to contain the material for the experiments and provided with waterproof top surface, safety glasses and glows, digital voltmeter, PC interface for the measurement and storage of data, digital voltmeter on console, digital ammeter on console, Cu/CuSO4 reference cell, Ag/AgCl reference cell, Zn reference cell, copper electrode, carbon steel electrode, transparent basin to build the electrolytic test bath, simple circuit with sliding resistor and lamp suitable for the insertion into the electrical circuit of the electrolytic cell, Zinc electrode, Magnesium electrode, Aluminum electrode, DC feeder (provided with constant voltage, constant current, constant potential facilities), Ti?Pt anode, MMO tubular anode, Cu bar,
Fe bar, Fe?Ni bar, resistivity fluid cell, waterproof resistor with thermostatic device, air pump with relevant sprayer, carbon steel electrode (completely coated with epoxy compound), carbon steel electrode (partially coated with epoxy compound), various reagents in plastic cans with technical sheet as per the requirement of CE, set of spare fuses, set of ancillaries and connecting leads, paper copies and CD of the manual book for training of the teacher in order to undertake the experiments.